Presented by:

**Christa Kaune**, Institute for Cognitive Mathematics, University Osnabruck, Germany, and

**Edyta Nowinska**, Intitute for Mathematics Didactics, A. Mckiewicz University in Poznan, Poland

in a general lecture conducted in Sriwijaya University on 30th July 2013.

The issue of contractual arithmetic in Indonesia was firstly introduced by Christa Kaune and team from Osnaburck University. Prior to the proposal of this approach, researches which focused on mathematical cognition had been conducted in several secondary schools in Yogyakarta and Nusa Tenggara Timur.

As the result, the idea was formulated to transform from head-to-head learning style into teaching mathematics for undertstanding. This approach does concern on the cognitive styles with three main steps, namely, generating argumentation, explanation, and prediction and justification.

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